Category Archives: Coronation Feature

A series of posts dedicated to the week before Anne’s coronation

What Ye Myght Be Feeling at 6 Months Pregnant: Anne’s Coronation

Contributed by Natalie Sweet

The following descriptions are combined from the most recent 4th edition of Heidi Murkoff’s and Sharon Mazel’s What to Expect When You are Expecting (passages in bold) and from Jakob Reuff’s (1500-1558) The Expert Midwife, which was reprinted in English in 1637 (passages italicized). A pregnant lady would not necessarily experience all of these symptoms, but they are very common ones when one is 6 months pregnant.

What Ye Myght Be Feeling at 6 Months Pregnant

More definite fetal activity: “an Infant, although as yet, by reafon of his tender and feeble condition and ftate, he wanteth motion.”

Continued vaginal discharge

Achiness in the lower abdomen and along the sides

Constipation: “But if it fhall happen that they be bound and cannot goe orderly to ftoole, let them take Spinage feafoned with ftore of Butter, alfo Lettuce made tender with Water, with Salt, Wine, and Vinegar. But if thofe things will not relaxe and unloofe the belly, let them ufe Suppofitors, confected and made of Hony and the yolke of an Egge, or with Venice-Soafpe. But if the conftipation and binding fhall be for eat, that this remedy will not profit, let them by the avice of a skilfull Phyfician, ufe a potion of the decoction of the leaves of Sena, together with Caffia, newly extracted and drawne, which the Phyfician fhall minifter, more or leffe, according to the quality fo the conftipation or coftiveneffe.”

Heartburn, indigestion, flatulence, bloating: “Let [preganant women] abftaine from crude, raw, and groffe mates: to wit,Lentils, Beanes, Milium, Beefe, falt an fryed, fruites, milke, cheefe, and fuch like.”

Occasional headaches, faintness, or dizziness: “let them drinke Sorrell-water, and Rofe-water warmed, tempered with Cinamon and little Rundells or Cakes, named Manus Chrifti, or Diamagariton. Of the water of Rofes and Bugloffe, being tempered with a little Cinamon, Cloves, and Saffron beaten to powder: fhall be laid upon the breft in a cloth once or twice doubled together, dipped and fteeped in that water.”

Nasal congestion and occasional nosebleeds; ear stuffiness

Sensitive gums

Hearty appetite: “Let the diet and food of women with child, be frugall and moderate…let them ufe Chickins, Egs, diverf forts of Pottages, Birds, Mutton and Veale, It will be good fometime to ufe Cinamome and Nutmeg, with Sugar. Let reafonable white Wine ferve for their drinke.”

Continued Morning Sickness: “But if a difposfition to vomiting fhall creepe upon them, or that they cannot difeft the meat which they have taken, let them use this fyrup: Take the fyrup of Pomegranates one ounce and a halfe, Muske, Lignum Aloes, of each one fcruple, Cinamome one fcruple and a halfe, temper and commixe them with three ounces of water of Sorrell, and make a draught of it for them to drinke. Let them drinke this fyrup every day when they are fafting, being well warmed.”

Leg cramps

Mild swelling of ankles and feet, and occasionally of hands and face: “prepare and make bathes for their fete and legges, in which let them fit daily one houre before fupper, and againe three houres together after fupper.”

Varicose veins of the legs and/or hemorrhoids

Itchy abdomen

A protruding navel

Backache

Skin pigementation changes on abdomen and/or face

Stretch marks

Enlarged breasts: due to “the Dugs or Paps chang[ing] the blood into milke”

Trouble sleeping

Numbness in hands

Slight bleeding

Note: “There is neede of very great causion and heed to be taken, that no peril and danger may happen to them which are with childe by any manner of meanes, either by fudden feare, affrightments, by fire, lightening, thunder, with monftrous and hideous afpects and fights of men and beafts, by immoderate joy, forrow and lamentation; or my untemperate exercife and motion of running, leaping, riding, or by furfeist or repletion by meate and drinke: or that they being taken with an difeafe doe not ufe fharpe and violent medicines ufing the counfell of unkilfull Phyficians.”

 

A woodcut image of a woman’s anatomy from Jakob Reuff’s book.
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June 1, 1533: The Coronation (and Price) of a Queen

Contributed by: Natalie Sweet

Anne Boleyn’s coronation took place on June 1, 1533. Instead of listing the descriptions provided by Thomas Cranmer or Edward Hall, we will share with you the events as related in the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. To help you understand the prices of things, I include this handy explanation:

The penny at this time was the standard monetary unit. The letter ‘d’ represented the penny. The shilling was represented by an ‘s’. The pound would be familiar to those who either live or are familiar with British currency today, as it was represented by an l or £. To put everything into perspective, the pound would today represent about 400 US dollars, 277 Euros, 389 Canadian dollars, or 244 British pounds sterling. If your nation’s currency is not listed here, a simple Google search for “currency converter” will help you figure out the amount!

Coronation Of Anne Boleyn

The manner of attendance of the judges at the coronation of queen Anne, at Whitsuntide, 25 Hen. VIII., as reported by Sir John Spillman, one of the King’s justices, then present.

Before the coronation, Westminster Hall was prepared, and the Court of King’s Bench was kept for the time in the Exchequer Chamber, the Common Pleas in the Abbey, and the Chancery in the White Hall. The King sent letters missives to each of the justices to attend at the Coronation. On Thursday the Queen came from Greenwich to the Tower, where she rested all the Friday. On Thursday the Chancellor wrote to the Chief Justice, desiring him and his companions, in their scarlet robes, to come to Tower Hill, each with one servant, between one and two on Friday, to ride with the Queen, between the lords and knights, to Westminster Hall, and to attend at the Hall on Whitsunday at seven. When the chief justice, FitzJames, received this letter, he summoned the chief baron, Sir Robt. Norwich, chief justice of the Common Pleas, Sir Ric. Lyster, chief baron, Sir Humphrey Conisby, Sir Ant. Fitzherbert, Sir John Port, Sir Thos. Englefield, Sir John Shelley, and Sir John Spilman, who determined to ride together to the Tower. On Saturday, after dinner, they rode to the Tower on horses and mules, in scarlet gowns and hoods, sarcenet tippets and collars of S.S. ; but being too late to go into the Tower they came back to Sir John Dancy’s house in Mark Lane, and after resting half an hour rode back to Tower Hill, where they staid an hour, while the knights and squires rode by. The heralds appointed the justices to ride before the knights of the Bath, of whom 18 were made that day, and before the King’s council. At Westminster Hall they alighted, and waited for the Queen in the Hall next to the said knights. When she had sat in her chair and drunk, she went to her chamber, and the justices all kneeled to her ; to whom she said, “I thank you for all the honor you have done to me this day.” After this they came to their inns. On Whit Sunday, wearing their coifs, scarlet robes, hoods, cloaks, and collars, they rode to Westminster Hall, and accompanied the Queen to the church in the same order as before. In the church they were with the lords upon a scaffold. When the Queen was ascended unto the high place, they and the lords descended to the door of the Hall, and put off their coifs, cloaks, and hoods, and put on their tippets, collars, and hoods, as before. The marshals assigned them to sit next to the barons, at the same table. After dinner they advanced themselves before the Queen as she went to her chamber, and kneeled down, when she spoke as before. They then came back to their inns. They were not at the jousts the next day, for they were not commanded to be present.

Later copy, pp. 2. (Letters and Papers)

 “For the Quenys litter” :—

Crimson velvet, 32½ yds. at 13s. 4d. Crimson damask for lining, 19 yds. at 7s. Scarlet for covering it, 3 yds. at 8s. Red cloth, for a foot cloth, 1 yd., 3s. 4d. Crimson cloth, for lining the collars, “dosers,” and breeches, 1½ yd. at 3s. 4d. A mattress, 5s. A serecloth, gold and silk fringe, points, &c. 2 great brasses that beareth the litter, 8s. Making 2 saddles, covered with crimson velvet, 13s. 4d. 2 great double collars, stuffed, with bells, 16s. 2 great bits, with gilt bosses, 10s. 10,000 gilt nails, at 3s. 4d. a 1,000. 2 white girths, 2s. 2 black reins, 6d. 1 doz. gilt buckles, at 10d. Chains and breeches for the saddles, 8s. 10 gilt roses, at 8d. 4 gilt pommels, with roses, at 4s. For making the covering, of crimson velvet, bordered with black velvet, embroidered with 2 heads, 6s. 8d. To the broiderer, for mending the border, 10s. (Added, in Cromwell’s (?) hand) : “Mem. To speak with Justice, for the making of the new litter, 46s. 8d. ; for the painting of it, 33s. 4d.”

 5. Apparel :—

Item. 1½ yd. of crimson satin. 3 yds. of crimson taffeta to line her velvet gown. 2 yds. of black satin for her gown. To send 4 cr. to buy white fur for her black satin gown. For making 2 gowns, 1 cr. 2 yds. of black buckram, to line the two gowns in the bodies. 3 yds. of frieze, to line the pleats of the gowns after their use. ½ yd. of white satin, to make habiliments for her head. 5 yds. of white satin for a kirtle. 2½ yds. of red cloth to line her kirtle. 17 pieces of goldsmith’s work. A flat gold chain “as the dothe … to wear there.” 12 cr.

 Goldsmith’s work :—

A gold cup with a cover, weighing 59¾ ozs., at 45s. the oz., 134l. 8s. 9d. Workmanship, at 5s. the oz., 14l. 18s. 9d. Total, 149l. 7s. 6d.

Narrative of the entry and coronation of Anne Boleyn, queen of England, at London, 2 June 1533.

The Queen left Greenwich on Thursday, about four o’clock in the afternoon, in a “barque raze,” like a brigantine, which was painted with her colours outside, with many banners. Her ladies attended her. She was accompanied by 100 or 120 similar vessels, also garnished with banners and standards. They were fitted out with small masts, to which was attached a great quantity of rigging, as on large ships ; the rigging being adorned with small flags of taffeta, and, by the writer’s advice, with “or clinquant,” as it reflects the sun’s rays. There were many drums, trumpets, flutes, and hantbois. They arrived in less than half an hour at the Tower of London, where the cannon fired a salute. It was a very beautiful sight ; for, besides the vessels, there were more than 200 small boats, which brought up the near. The whole river was covered. On Friday the Queen did not leave her lodging. On Saturday, about five o’clock in the afternoon, in her royal dresses, which are of the same fashion as those of France, she mounted a litter covered inside and out with white satin. Over her was borne a canopy of cloth of gold. Then followed twelve ladies on hackneys, all clothed in cloth of gold. Next came a chariot covered with the same cloth, and containing only the duchess of Norfolk, step-mother of the Duke, and the Queen’s mother. Next, twelve young ladies on horseback, arrayed in crimson velvet. Next, three gilded coaches, in which were many young ladies ; and, lastly, twenty or thirty others on horseback, in black velvet. Around the litter were the duke of Suffolk, that day Constable, and my lord William (fn. 2) [Howard], who was Great Marshal and Great Chamberlain,—a hereditary office,—in place of his brother the duke of Norfolk. Before them marched two men, called esquires, who wore bonnets furred with ermines, somewhat like the chief usher of Paris. Then came the French ambassador, accompanied by the archbishop of Canterbury ; then the Venetian ambassador, accompanied by the Chancellor ; then many bishops, and the rest of the great lords and gentlemen of the realm, to the number of 200 or 300. Before all, marched the French merchants, in violet velvet, [each] wearing one sleeve of the Queen’s colours ; their horses being caparisoned in violet taffeta with white crosses. In all open places (carrefours) were scaffolds, on which mysteries were played ; and fountains poured forth wine. Along the streets all the merchants were stationed. The Queen alighted in a great hall, in which was a high place, where she partook of wine, and then retired to her chamber.

On Sunday morning, accompanied by all the said lords and gentlemen, she went on foot from her lodging to the church, the whole of the road being covered with cloth, and being about the length of the garden of Chantilly. All the bishops and abbots went to meet her, and conducted her to the church. After hearing mass, she mounted upon a platform before the great altar, covered with red cloth. The place where she was seated, which was elevated on two steps, was covered with tapestry. She remained there during the service, after being crowned by the archbishop of Canterbury, who delivered the crown to her, and consecrated her in front of the high altar. That day the duke of Suffolk was Grand Master, and constantly stood near the Queen with a large white rod in his hand. My lord William and the Great Chamberlain were also near her. Behind her were many ladies, duchesses, and countesses, attired in scarlet, in cloaks furred with ermines —such as are usually worn by duchesses and countesses,—and in bonnets. The dukes, earls, and knights were likewise clothed in scarlet robes, furred with ermines, like the first presidents of Paris, with their hoods. The coronation over, the Queen was led back again with the same company as she came, excepting some bishops, into a great hall, which had been prepared for her to dine in. The table was very long, and the Archbishop was seated a considerable distance from her. She had at her feet two ladies, seated under the table to serve her secretly with what she might need ; and two others near her, one on each side, often raised a great linen cloth to hide her from view, when she wished “s’ayser en quelque chose.” Her dinner lasted a long time, and was very honorably served. Around her was an inclosure, into which none entered but those deputed to serve, who were the greatest personages of the realm, and chiefly those who served “de sommelliers d’eschançonnerie et panetrie.” The hall being very large, and good order kept, there was no crowding. Beneath the inclosure were four great tables, extending the length of the hall. At the first were seated those of the realm who have charge of the doors ; below them, at the same table, were many gentlemen ; at the second table, the archbishops, bishops, the Chancellor, and many lords and knights. The two other tables were at the other side of the hall : “à celle du hault bout” was the mayor of London, accompanied by the sheriffs ; at the other were duchesses, countesses, and ladies. The duke of Suffolk was gorgeously arrayed with many stones and pearls, and rode up and down the hall and around the tables, upon a courser caparisoned in crimson velvet ; as also did my lord William, who presided over the serving, and kept order : they were always bareheaded, as you know is the custom of this country. The King stationed himself in a place which he had had made, and from which he could see without being seen ; the ambassadors of France and Venice were with him. At the hall door were conduits pouring out wine ; and there were kitchens to give viands to all comers, the consumption of which was enormous. Trumpets and hautbois sounded at each course, and heralds cried “largesse.” Next day a tourney took place, eight against eight, and every one ran six courses. My lord William led one band, and Master Carew, the grand esquire, the other.

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May 31, 1533: The Procession as Recorded in the Letters and Papers of King Henry VIII

On Thursday, 29 May 1533, 25 Hen. VIII., the lady Anne marchioness of Pembroke was received at Greenwich, and conveyed to the Tower of London, and thence to Westminster, where she was crowned queen of England.

Order was taken by the King and his Council for all the Lords spiritual and temporal to be in the barge before Greenwich at 3 p.m., and give their attendance till the Queen took her barge. The mayor of London, Stephen Pecocke, haberdasher, had 48 barges in attendance richly decked with arras, hung with banners and with pennons of the arms of the crafts in fine gold, and having in them trumpets, shallands, and minstrels ; also every barge decked with ordnance of guns, “the won to heill the other troumfettly as the tyme dyd require.” Also there was the bachelor’s barge sumptuously decked, and divers foists with great shot of ordnance, which went before all the barges. Order given that when her Grace’s barge came “anontes” Wapping mills, knowledge should be given to the Tower to begin to shoot their ordnance. Commandment given to Sir Will. Vinstonne (Kingston), constable of the Tower, and Sir Edw. Wallsyngham, lieutenant of the Tower, to keep a space free for her landing. It was marvellous sight how the barges kept such good order and space between them that every man could see the decking and garnishing of each, “and how the banars and penanntes of armis of their craftes, the which were beaten of fyne gould, yllastring so goodly agaynste the sonne, and allso the standardes, stremares of the conisaunsys and devisis ventylyng with the wynd, allso the trompettes blowyng, shallmes and mistrielles playng, the which war a ryght symtivis and a tryhumfantt syght to se and to heare all the way as they paste upon the water, to her the sayd marvelles swett armone of the sayd ynstermentes, the which soundes to be a thinge of a nother world. This and this order hir Grace pasyng till she came a nontt Rattlyffe.”

The Queen was “hallsyd with gones forth of the shippes” on every side, which could not well be numbered, especially at Ratcliffe. When she came over against Wapping mills the Tower “lousyd their ordinaunce” most triumphantly, shooting four guns at once.

At her landing, a long lane was made among the people to the King’s bridge at the entrance of the Tower. She was received on coming out of her barge by Sir Edw. Walsingham, lieutenant of the Tower, and Sir Will. Kinston, constable of the Tower. The officers of arms gave their attendance ; viz., Sir Thos. Writhe, Garter king-of-arms, Clarencieux and Norroy kings-of-arms, Carlisle, Richmond, Windsor, Lancaster, York, and Chester heralds ; the old duchess of Norfolk bearing her train ; the lord Borworth (sic), chamberlain to her Grace, supporting it, &c. A little further on she was received by lord Sandes, the King’s chamberlain, lord Hause (Hussey), chamberlain with the Princess, the lord Windsor, the lord Nordunt (Mordaunt?), and others ; afterwards by the bishops of Winchester and London, the earl of Oxford, chamberlain of England, lord Will. Haworth, marshal of England, as deputy to his brother Thos. duke of Norfolk, the earl of Essex, &c.

Somewhat within the Tower she was received by the King, who laid his hands on both her sides, kissing her with great reverence and a joyful countenance, and led her to her chamber, the officers of arms going before. After which every man went to his lodging, except certain noblemen and officers in waiting. The King and Queen went to supper, and “after super ther was sumptuus void.”

On Friday, 30 May, all noblemen, &c. repaired to Court, and in a long chamber within the Tower were ordained 18 “baynes,” in which were 18 noblemen all that night, who received the order of knighthood on Saturday, Whitsun eve. Also there were 63 knights made with the sword in honor of the coronation. Then all the nobles, knights, squires, and gentlemen were warned to attend on horseback, on the Tower Hill on Saturday next, to accompany her Grace to Westminster, to do service at the coronation.

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A Funeral or a Triumph? The Crowds Who Watched the Coronation Ceremonies

Contributed by: Natalie Sweet

In the last letter we viewed from Chapuys, he noted that, “all the people showed themselves as sorry as though [the coronation procession] had been a funeral” (Letters and Papers, HVIII). He would not be the only person to note the hostility of the crowds that week. From this anonymous description pulled from the Letters and Papers of Brussels, a very disturbing image of Anne’s coronation emerges:

“Though it was customary to kneel, uncover, and cry O God save the King, God save the Queen whenever they appeared in public, no one in London or the suburbs, not even women and children, did so on this occasion.  One of the Queen’s servants told the mayor to command the people to make the customary shouts, and was answered that he could not command people’s hearts, and that even the King could not make them do so. [The Queen’s] dress was covered with tongues pierced with nails, to show the treatment which those who spoke against her might expect. Her car was so low that the ears of the last mule appeared to those who stood behind her to belong to her. The letters H.A. were painted in several places, for Henry and Anne, but were laughed at by many.  The crown became her very ill, and a wart disfigured her very much. She wore a violet velvet mantle, with a high ruff of gold thread and pearls, which concealed a swelling she has, resembling goiter. (Letters and Papers, from a catalogue of papers at Brussels, now lost.)

Could it be that such a hostile crowd greeted Anne? By the accounts, thousands watched Anne’s journey. Undoubtedly, there were many present who disliked the idea of Anne becoming Queen. Katherine had been much beloved, and Anne had been treated with hostility before, in public and in the form of malicious gossip and fanciful tales. The idea that no one paid her honor, however, is a little hard to believe. For one, we have already viewed letters of merchants and artisans asking for the privilege of serving the new Queen. If the people of 16th century England were anything, they were wary of their monarch’s changing moods and opinions, and they were also on the lookout for new ways to rise from their own stations. Recognizing the new Queen was one way to move upward and replace the old order.

Secondly, there are always those within every society in every time period who just accept the turning of the tides. Would they have taken time out of their day to go greet the new Queen? Perhaps not. However, Henry, like monarchs before and after him, considered this fact. As such, food and drink was made available to the crowds to celebrate the monumental occasion of a coronation, just as it was during births and weddings.

Finally, we must take the time and step back to examine the full blast of this anonymous person’s complaint. Besides reporting about the hostile crowds, care was taken to deride Anne’s physical appearance. Her dress is clearly a complete fabrication, as we know of no embroidered design of “tongues pierced with nails.” The existence of an ugly wart was discussed, and Anne’s pregnancy was portrayed as a goiter. Complaints of Anne’s physical appearance was a common crutch used by her enemies, even long after her death. It contributes to the difficulty we face in understanding what Anne truly looked like.

Considering all of this, I am led to believe that portions of the crowd were surly, and didn’t respond enthusiastically to Anne’s arrival. However, I’m sure that there were others who responded cheerily to the event, if only because the red wine flowing from the fountain was plentiful!

What of your thoughts, however? Should we take these accounts as an insightful look at the majority of the crowd, some of the crowd, or none of the crowd?

Plans for Coronation

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May 29, 1533: A Happier Trip to the Tower

Contributed by Natalie Sweet

Today in 1533, Anne Boleyn made her way from Greenwich  to the Tower. Eustache Chapuys, ever the eyes and ears of the Tudor court, wrote to Charles V that,

“The Duke left two hours after I had returned, so that neither he nor his company, among which is the brother of the Lady, have delayed one day to see the triumph in which the Lady has today come from Greenwich to the Tower. She was accompanied by several bishops and lords, and innumerable people, in the form that other queens have been accustomed to be received ; and, whatever regret the King may have shown at the taking of the Queen’s barge, the Lady has made use of it in this triumph, and appropriated it to herself. God grant she may content herself with the said barge and the jewels and husband of the Queen, without attempting anything, as I have heretofore written, against the persons of the Queen and Princess. The said triumph consisted entirely in the multitude of those who took part in it, but all the people showed themselves as sorry as though it had been a funeral. I am told their indignation increases daily, and that they live in hope your Majesty will interfere. On Saturday the Lady will pass all through London and go to the King’s lodging, and on Sunday to Westminster, where the ceremony of the coronation will take place. London, 29 May 1533.” (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII)

Of this account, there has been some question as to Anne’s appropriation of Katherine of Aragon’s barge (in the above letter, the “Queen” is Katherine of Aragon – Chapuys would never call Anne the Queen while Katherine lived). Why would Anne take a second-hand barge? Some point out that it is Anne’s enemy, Chapuys, who reports this information. In the very same letter, he admitted to Charles that he had a “little dissembled with the Duke about the treatment of the said ladies, in accordance with your Majesty’s commands.” Even by Chapuys’s own admission, he lied (as directed) when it suited his goal of helping Katherine.

There are many reasons, however, to believe that Anne did indeed use the Queen’s barge. For one, as the new Queen, she would see it as being rightfully hers. As Chapuys mentions above, she received the Queen’s jewels, and all of the honors of state that went with her new title. Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, this was a way to remind those watching (whether they were noble or peasant) that she now occupied Katherine’s former position. She wore the Queen’s jewels, she rode in the Queen’s barge…to the common people, this would show that yes, indeed she is now Queen, and not just an impostor showered with fake gifts of authority. She took possession of those old items that marked her as legitimate.

A Victorian depiction of Anne’s “marriage procession” (which, as we know, Anne and Henry were married in private!)

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Preparations Fit for a Queen

Contributed by Natalie Sweet

Of Anne’s coronation, we have numerous accounts. Two come from her enemies – Eustache Chapuys and an unidentified witness (whose account found its way into the letters and papers of Brussels) provide scathing commentary and give voice to the supposedly hostile crowds that Anne encountered. Thomas Cranmer and one of the King’s justices, Sir John Spillman, also described the days events, and we have surviving pamphlets that include Nicholas Udall’s verses composed in Anne’s honor.  Several years later, the Tudor chronicler, Edward Hall, would provide his own take on the events.

To begin our examination of the records of Anne’s coronation, however, we will first begin with requested favors, costs, and logistics. Numerous persons contacted Thomas Cromwell for the honor of being allowed to create the trappings for the various ceremonies. Robert Tomlynson, the Alderman of Our Lady’s Guild in Boston, wrote that he “endeavoured since to provide such wild fowl as I could get in these parts, i.e. six cranes, six bitterns, and three dozen godwits” for a present to be prepared for the King to present in honor of the Queen’s coronation. Stephan Vaughn wrote to Cromwell with hopes for his wife, saying, “I am informed that the Queen intends to have a silkwoman to trim and furnish her Grace with such things as she shall wear. If you will recommend my wife to the place you will bind us both. You know what she can do. I suppose no woman can better trim her Grace.”

Nothing speaks as much to the pomp and cost of the festivities, however, as the plans described in the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII:

Coronation Of Anne Boleyn.

The order in proceeding from the Tower to Westminster.

The King’s messengers to ride foremost with their boxes, to stay when that time is, and to go when that time is, as they see the followers do pause.

The strangers that ride, and the Ambassadors’ servants. Item, next the trumpets, the gentlemen ushers, the chaplains having no dignity, the squires for the Body, with pursuivants two and two on each side. The knights and challenger and defender with steryng horses. The aldermen of London. The great chaplains of dignity. Heralds, two and two on each side. The knights of the Bath, the “barenettes” [and abbots]. (fn. 3) The knights of the Garter, being no lords. The two Chief Judges and Master of the Rolls. Then all the Lords and Barons in order after their estates. The Bishops. The Earls and Ambassadors. The comptroller of Household. The treasurer of Household. The steward of Household. Two kings-of-arms. The King’s chamberlain. The Lord Privy Seal. The Lord Admiral of England. The Great Chamberlain of England. The Archbishops and Ambassadors. The two esquires of honor, with robes of estate rolled and worn baldric wise about their necks, with caps of estate representing the duke of Normandy and the duke of Aquitain. The Lord Mayor and Garter. The Marshal, the Constable, the Treasurer, the Chancellor. The Serjeants-of-arms on both sides. Her Chancellor bareheaded. The Queen’s grace. The Lord Chamberlain. The Master of the Horse leading a spare horse. Seven ladies in crimson velvet. Two chariots ; two ladies in the first, and four in the second, all of the greatest estates. Seven ladies in the same suit, their horses trapped to the pastron. The third chariot, wherein were six ladies with crimson velvet. The fourth chariot, with eight ladies in crimson velvet. Thirty gentlewomen, all in velvet and silk of the liveries of their ladies. The captain of the Guard. The King’s guard in their rich coats.

“The appointment what number of officers and servitors that shall attend upon the Queen’s grace, the Bishop and the ladies sitting at the Queen’s board in the Great Hall at Westminster, the day of the coronation, as followeth :—

Carvers : Lord Montague for the Queen. Sir Edw. Seymour for the Bishop. Thos. Arundell for the ladies at the board.

Cupbearers : Lord William Howard for the Queen. Lord Clynton for the Bishop. Lord Audeley’s son and heir for the board.

Sewers : Sir Edw. Nevill for the Queen. Percival Harte for the Bishop. Richard Verney for the board. Chief pantry, 1. Chief butler, 1. Chief sewer, 1. Almoners, 7. Servitors, knights, and gentlemen for three messes, 60. Sewers, 8. Servitors, 80. Yeomen, 16.

Knights of the Bath : Marquis of Dorset, earl of Derby, lords Clifford, Fitzwater, Hastings, Mountegle, and Vaux ; Mr. Parker, lord Morley’s son ; Mr. Wynsor, lord Winsor’s son ; John Mordant, lord Mordant’s son ; Fras. Weston, Thos. Arundell, Mr. Corbet, Mr. Wyndham, John Barkeley, John Huddelston, Ric. Verney of Penley, Thos. Ponynges, Hen. Savile, John Germayne, Rob. Whitneye of Gloucestershire, Geo. Fitzwilliams, John Tyndall.

Knights and gentlemen to be servitors : Sir John St. John, Sir Michael Fisher, Sir Thos. Rotheram, Sir Geo. Somerset, Sir Wm. Essex, Sir Antony Hungerford, Sir Ric. Graundfeild, Sir John Hamond, Sir Robt. Painton, Sir Giles Alington, Sir Thos. Elyot, Sir Rafe Langford, Sir John Fulford, Sir Thos. Darcy, Sir John Villers, Sir John Markham, Sir John Beryn, Sir Nic. Stirley, Sir Thos. Straung, Sir Fras. Lovell, Sir Edw. Chamberlen, Sir Adrian Fortescue, Sir Water Stoner, Sir Wm. Barentyne, Sir Wm. Newman, Sir Arthur Hopton, Sir Edm. Beningfeild, Sir Ant. Wingfeild, Sir Geo. Frogmerton, Sir John Russell of Worster, Sir Geo. Darcy, Sir Wm. Pickering, Sir Thos. Cornvell, Sir John Bridges, Sir Wm. Hussey, Sir Edw. Wotton, Sir Wm. Hault, Sir John Skott, Sir Ric. Clementes, Sir Wm. Kempe, Sir Edw. Cobham, Sir Wm. Fynch, Sir John Thymbleby, Sir Rob. Hussey, Sir Chr. Willughbie, Sir Wm. Skipwith, Sir Wm. Askice, (fn. 4) Sir Jeffrey Poole, Sir Jas. Worsley, Sir Thos. Lysley, Sir John Talbot, Sir John Gifford, Sir Wm. Basset, Sir Ph. Dracote, Sir Henry Longe, Sir Ant. Lutterell, Sir John Sainctlowe, Sir Roger Copley, Sir Wm. Pellam, Sir Wm. Goring, Sir Walter Hungerford, John Hersley, George Lyne, Ric. Philips,—Yorke, Ric. Dodham, Rafe Mannering, John Seintler, Clement Harleston, John Turell, Humfrey Ferres, Geo. Grissley, Wm. Drurye, Wm. Cope, John St. John, Edm. Tame, Ric. Lygon, Leonard Poole, John Arnold, John Arden, Wm. Stafford, Chas. Herbert of Troy, Sir Wm. Paunder, Young Wingfeild, Holcrofte, Skipwith, Diar, Young Barkeley.

Sewers : Roger Banbricke, Antony Isley, Edm. Browne, John Cheyne, Wm. Morgan, Davy Morgan, Hen. Seymer, William Jones.

Yeomen ushers and yeomen appointed to attend upon the Queen at her Coronation : John Lane, Laurence Sendell, Robt. Griffith, Thos. Marshall, John Brygden, Davyd Philips, John Geffrey, Wm. Avenell, Ric. Ryder, Wm. Sendre, Hugh Troblefeild, John Ashton, John Smith, senior, John Robertes, John Perce, Antony Saunders, Walter Wagham, Thos. Coxe, Ric. Stone, Thos. Hawkins, Wm. Bond, Robt. Whitbrowe, Hugh Lewis, Thos. Gethens, Ric. Gilmyn, Rob. Gibbes, Ric. Rawneshaw, John Bromfeld, Robt. Langden, John Holcomb, Robt. Owen, Griffith ap Morice, Walter Menours, Wm. Jones, Robt. Mortoun, Edm. Stoner, John Gethens, Edw. Philips, John Wympe, Ric. Clerke, John Holland, John Alcock, Ric. Gilling, John Evanse, Lyonell Martyn, Fras. Coket, John Brathwet, John Cox, John Knotford, John Belson, John Byrte, John Node, Moris Apenevet, Michael Whiting, John Stevens, Hugh David, Lewis ap Watkyn, John Cowper, Edw. Johnson, Ric. Fowler, John Grymith, Symond Symmes, Robert Stonhouse, Edw. Aprichard, Hen. Holden. Ibid., f. 50 b. ii. Officers appointed to attend on the Queen and the Bishop sitting at the Queen’s board end, on the day of her coronation.

John Hancote, Thos. Berram, Roger Gerers, John Massye, John Colby, John Person Edw. Dickey, Ric. Estoune, Wm. Lawry, George Banckes, Thos. Massy, Ralfe Ball, John Gounter, Ric. Baker, John Thomas, Thos. Norton, Wm. Germaine, Thos. Toby, Richard Faice, Geo. Hodson. John Williams, Adam Holland, Robt. Bird, Robt. Gibson, Wm. Batty, Hugh Norres, Thos. Calfe, Wm. Paye.

Carvers : The earl of [Essex or] Rutland for the Queen ; Sir Edm. (Edward) Seymour for the Archbishop.

Cupbearers : Lord Derby for the Queen ; Sir John Dudley for the Archbishop.

Sewers : The earl of Sussex for the Queen ; Sir Thos. Arundell for the Archbishop.

Panters : Viscount Lisle, chief panter ; John Apricharde ; John Gislym.

[Butlers] : Earl of Arundell, chief butler ; Ric. Hill, Edm. Harvye. [Ewers] : Sir Henry [Thomas] Wyat, Jeffrey Villers, Henry Atkinson. Chief almoners for the Queen : Lord Bray, Sir Wm. Gascoyne. Almoners : Henry Wells, Thos. Mason. Edmond Pekham, cofferer. William Thynne. Thos. Hatclife, Edw. Weldon, for the Bishop, and the said Bishop to be served covered. Surveyors at the dressers : Thos. Weldon for the Queen ; Thos. Holden for the Bishop. Michael Wentworth, Henry Bricket, to see that nothing be embezzled.

Servitors from the dressers : For the Queen : Sir — Parker, Sir John St. John, Sir William Wynsor, Sir John Mordaunt, Sir Fras. Weston, Sir John Gifforte, Sir John Barkeley, Sir John Huddleston. Sir Ric. Verney, Sir Thos. Poninges, Sir Hen. Savell, Sir John Germayne, Sir Robt. Whetney, Sir Geo. Fitzwilliams, Sir John Tyndall, Sir Michael Fisher, Sir Tho. Rotheram, Sir Geo. Somerset, Sir Wm. Essex, Sir Antony Hungerford, Sir Ric. Graundfeild, Sir John Shamond, (fn. 5) Sir Robt. Paynton, Sir Walter Stoner. For the Archbishop : Sir Thos. Elyot, Sir Rafe Langford, Sir John Fulford, Sir Thos. Dar[c]y. Sir John Villers, Sir John Markham, Sir John Berryn, Sir Nic. Stirley, Sir Thos. Straung, Sir Fras. Lovell, Sir Edw. Chamberlen, Sir Adryan Fortescue, Sir Hen. Longe, Sir Wm. Barington, Sir Wm. Newman, Sir Arthur Hopton, Sir Edw. Beningfeild, Sir Antony Wingfield, Sir Geo. Frogmerton, (fn. 6) Sir John Russell of Worcestershire, Sir George Dar[c]y, Sir Wm. Pickering, Sir Thos. Cornwall, Sir John Bridges.

Waferers : Rob. Leigh for the Queen and the Bishop. He must bring his wafers for both services to the Queen’s cupboard, to be set (fn. 7) from thence by the sewers. Confectionery : Cutbert Blakden (fn. 8) for the Queen and Bishop, with similar orders.

Kitchen : For the Queen and Bishop : John Plume, Edw. Wilkinson, Ric. Currey, John Armstrong, Robt. Plume, child, Thos. Galepy, fryer.

Larder : Lord Burgenye, John Dale, Jas. Mitchell.

Sausery : John Richardson for the Queen and Bishop, remaining in the house.

Pastry : John Cuncle, Elister Shainc. Boilers : John White, [John Tayler].

Scullery : Wm. Richarde for the Queen ; Wm. Rawlyns for the Bishop, and to be served with gilt plate.

Marshals : Ric. Rede for the Queen ; Edw. Vaux for the Bishop ; Jesper Terrell ; John Stevens. Richard Chace to be supervisor that every man give his due attendance that shall wait in the hall beneath the bar.

[Lord Chamberlain : John earl of Oxford to give the King water.

The towel : Allen Asplonge, or his heirs, to give the Queen the towel before dinner.

The Queen’s Champion : —.]

Officers appointed to attend on the Lords Spiritual and Temporal at the middle board on the right hand of the Queen. The first board to be 11 yards in length, and to be served with three services of a like fare, and 30 services of another fare.

Sewers : John Barney at the board, John Banbricke at the dresser. Panters : Thos. Bend, Ric. Holbroke, Ric. Madoxe, John Stoddard, Wm. Dennys, Pierce Barly. Buttery and cellar : Bryan Aunsley, William Abbot, Ric. Weckly, John Aman. Ewris : Allyn Matthew, Thos. Christmas, Robt. Clynton.

Almoners : Thos. Oldnall, Wm. Blakeden, Hugh Williams.

[Conveyers] : Thos. Child, Thos. Hinde, Wm. Berman. Surveyors at the dressers : Thos. Hall, Wm. Thynne. John Lane, to see that the yeomen give due attendance. [Servitors from the dresser] : Richard Gilmyn, Robt. Griffith, Thos. Marshall, John Brogden, David Phillip, John Geffrey, Wm. Avenell, Ric. Ryder, Robt. Gibes, Wm. Semerre, Hugh Troblefeild, John Ashton, John Smith the elder, John Robertes, John Perce, Antony Perce, Antony Saunders, Walter Vaughan, Thos. Coxe, Ric. Stone, Thos. Hawkins, Wm. Bonde. Robt. Whitbrowe, Hugh Lewis, Thos. Githens. Waferers : Robt. Lystar. Confectionery : John Amnesleye. Kitchen : Wm. Bolton, Robt. Forster, John Floy (fn. 9) , John Laurence, John Baker, child, Wm. Botte, (fn. 10) fryer. Larder : John Dale, Jas. Michell. Saulsery : John Richard, Symond Dudley. Pastry : John Connicle, Robt. Dauson, Ric. Byre. Boiler : John White. Scullery : Wm. Rice, Wm. Rawlins, Thos. Coke, child, John Worall, (fn. 11) conducte.

Marshals : Thos. Ward, Hen. Hokars. Huisshers : John Gilman, Thos. Myles.

Officers to attend upon Duchesses and other ladies at the middle board on the left hand of the Queen ; the first board 8 yards long. To be served with 3 services of like fare, 3 of another fare, and 30 of another fare.

Sewers : John Bonam, Ric. Sterkey.

Pantry : Thos. Skasley, John Markham, John Coxe, Thos. Hall. Conveyors of the bread to the panters : Richard Boxham, Geo. Forman. Buttery and cellar : Wm. Morrant, Ric. Lee, Ric. Parker, Thos. Trewth. (fn. 12)

[Ewers] : Geo. Fitzgeffrey, John Morgan, John Dixe. [Almoners] : John Stanbanck, Edw. Garret, Thos. Inde, Thos. Walker, Geo. Bond, Wm. Kedle, Thos. Turner. Surveyor at the dresser without, Thos. Hatcliffe ; at the dresser within, Thos. Horden. John Powes to see that the yeomen give due attendance. Servitors from the dresser : Ric. Rainshawe, John Kinge, John Wellet, John Aprice, Ric. Saidell, Wm. Tolley, John Strymyn, Rafe Tykill, Thos. Jones, John Sydnam, Leonard Barowes, John Dorset, Thos. Lewis, Jas. (fn. 13) Stanley, John Tompson, John Smothen, Edw. Deckey, Ric. Eston, Wm. Laury, Geo. Bankes, Thos. Massie, Rafe Baiely, John Gaunter. Wafe[…] Robt. Lyster. Confectioner : John Amnesley. Kitchen : John Dale, George Benson, Rafe Iswell, Wm. Maie, Philip Yarow, child, Ric. Rede, fryer. Larder : Thos. English. Boiler : John Tailour. Saulsery : John Richard, John Ringros. Pastry : Elize Shaunce, Wm. Andreson, conducte. Scullery : Wm. Wells, John Awmorer, conduct, Silvester Glossope.

Marshals : Nic. Sainctes, (fn. 14) Thos. Braken. Huishers : John Towe, Nic. Ashfeild.

Officers to attend upon the Barons of the Cinque Ports, at the side board on the Queen’s right hand, next the wall. The first board to be 8 yards long, and to be served with 3 services of like fare, and 30 services of another fare.

Sewers : Ant. Isley, John Cheyne. Panters : Wm. Cowper, John Bartlet, John Whitstall, Wm. Sotherne, conveyers of bread. Buttery and cellar : John Burnell, Robt. Gardener, Matthew Hanmer, Thos. Stanbridge. (fn. 15) Ewry : Edw. Myller, (fn. 16) Thos. Colbeck, Robt. Maxton. (fn. 17) Almoners : Willm. Cressell, Wm. Breredge, Ric. Valentyne, Thos. Reding, and John Downslowe ; John Davie and Robt. Rendon, (fn. 18) conveyers.

Surveyors at the dressers : Edw. Welden, Jas. Sutton. Servitors from the dresser : Laurence Serle, overseer, John Bromfeld, Robt. Lamdon, John Holcombe, Robt. Owen, Griffith Myres, Wm. Jones, Rob. Orton, Edm. Stone, John Githons, Edw. Philips, John Umpe, Ric. Clerke, John Holland, John Alcocke, Ric. Gilling, John Evans, Lymerell Martyn, Fras. Socket, (fn. 19) John Brewet, John Coxe, John Knotfort, John Bilson, (fn. 20) John Birte. Waferer : Robt. Lyster. Confectionery : John Amnsley. Kitchen : Laurence Thexted, Ric. Townsend, Roger Brosse, John Coke, Rafe Hogan, child, Wm. More, fryer. Larder : Hen. Groves. (fn. 21) Boiler : John Tailour. Saulserie : John Richardson, Matthew White. Pastry : Matthew White, child, Roger Brynge, conducte. Scullery : Wm. Phillip, Wm. Hamhider. Marshal : Ric. Wales. Huishers : John Fisher, Jas. Aleasley.

Officers to attend upon the Mayor of London, sitting at the board next the wall on the left hand of the Queen. The first board to be 9 yards long, and to be served with 5 services of like fare, and 30 of another.

Sewers : Edw. Browne, Wm. Jones. Panters : Thos. Pulfort, Hugh Mynours, John Tryce, Robt. Hylston. Buttery and cellar : Thos. Mynours, Wm. Corffale, caker, John Throughgood, Wm. Agre. Ewry : Edw. Bird, Geo. Smert, Wm. Cheke. Almoners : John Fisher, John Rowland, Wm. Blike, Wm. Willkinson, and Hen. Hungreford ; Adam Faulcet, Hen. Wilkinson, conveyers of bread.

Surveyors at the dressers : John Mery, Robt. Pagman. Servitors from the dresser : Henry Bird to superintend, John Wode, Moris Apdenevet, Michael Whiting, John Stevens, Hugh David, Lewis ap Watkin, John West, John Burton, Robert Fleminge, Edw. Clayton, Lewis Appowell, John Cowper, Edw. Johnson, Ric. Fuller, John Treveth, Simmosune Symes, Robt. Stonehouse, Hen. Holden, John Hancocke, Thos. Boram, Roger Meres, John Massye, John Colby. Waferers : Robt. Lyster, John Amnsley. Kitchen : William Snowball, John Sterne, John Crane, John Mathew, Thos. Borrey, child, Peter Child, fryer. Larder : Ric. Mathewe. Boilers : John White, John Tailour. Saulsery : John Richardson, Thos. Nash. Pastry : Thos. Dover, (fn. 22) Ric. Wilkinson. Scullery : Thos. More, Robt. Cellye. Marshals : Thos. Greves, Wm. Bellingham. Huisshers : Thos. Croftes, Wm. Bate.

The hall must be served with plate, as spoons, salts, pots, and bowls.

The Queen’s Lord Chamberlain and Vice-chamberlain and two gentlemen must attend upon the Queen.

Officers appointed for serving the waste. Panter : Wm. Wilkinson. Clerk : Jas. Harington. Cook : John Hautcliffe. Larderer : John Dauson. Cooks for the “Worchouses” : John Birket, Ric. Parker, John Stevens, John Johnson, Steven God, Wm. Whitfeild.

Noblemen admitted to do service according to the tenure of their lands, and for the trial of their fees and profits unto the morrow of St. John Baptist’s Day : Earl of Arundel, chief butler ; Viscount of Lisle, chief panter ; earl of Oxford, chief chamberlain ; Sir Hen. Wyat, chief ewre ; earl of Shrewsbury to support the Queen’s right arm and bear the sceptre ; sixteen Barons of the Cinque Ports to bear the canopy over her ; lord Burgeine, chief larderer ; Sir Giles Alington to bear the first cup to the Queen ; earl of Sussex, chief sewer ; the Mayor of London to bear a cup of gold to the Queen at her void.

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The Coronation of Anne Boleyn: A Sharp Contrast to May 19th, 1536

Contributed by Natalie Sweet

Perhaps nothing places the events of May 19th, 1536, in such a harsh light as the celebrations that had taken place in honor of Anne’s coronation. By all accounts, Henry spared no expense to honor his new Queen. Pageants were held, and a grand procession was planned. Anne’s ladies wore scarlet, the streets were bedecked in the color of crimson, and wine flowed from a fountain. Three years later, a scarlet-crimson of a different kind would touch the earth.

Was a sudden downfall something Anne should have expected, or at the very least, have been concerned about?  On May 23rd, 1533, Thomas Cranmer declared the marriage between Henry and Katherine of Aragon as null and void. Henry might have behaved abominably to Katherine and convinced himself of the illegitimacy of their marriage, but this was the same man who had hotly pursued Anne for years. Not only this, but Anne carried his child, a child she had every reason to hope was a boy.

And speaking of her pregnancy, the coronation celebration was as much, if not more, of a celebration of Anne’s pregnancy as it was of Anne herself. The Queen’s duty was to bear children, and there was no doubt that Anne was very heavily pregnant, as almost all of the accounts relate. With this in mind, I would like to take the time to consider what it must have been like to have been so pregnant, on the 1st of June, and to have withstood the days of festivities that Anne experienced. I use “withstood” purposefully: at this time, Anne would have been in her second trimester, generally the “good” time of the pregnancy. The first trimester sickness has usually passed by this time (unless, one is unlucky and it lasts the entire pregnancy), and the third trimester bloating is yet to come. Having worked with Susan this time last year on this project, and having been in my own second trimester, I at that time imagined there was a certain amount of misery in the day’s festivities. To put it into perspective: I love shopping (probably at an unhealthy level!), and had decided to go with my mother on an outdoor outlet shopping adventure at the beginning of June. I was very excited about it, and thought myself perfectly capable of handling the day. Even with driving to certain stores, however, I was exhausted and swollen by the day’s events. The heat, which seems to intensify when one is pregnant, was terrible in my capris and t-shirt, and it was a coolish June day. Now imagine Anne wearing her purple velvet. Never mind riding in a litter; smiling at everyone, whether they acted pleased to greet her or not, would be taxing on even the most indulgent, over-heated pregnant lady.

Likewise, no matter how well the pregnancy progresses in the second trimester, there is still the slight nagging worry that something might go wrong. Compound this worry with the thought that your husband absolutely relies on you to deliver of a healthy, preferably male, child and see where that takes your mind.

In the week that follows, we will examine various aspects of Anne’s coronation. We will look at accounts from both Anne’s friends and enemies in an attempt to contrast the celebration that Anne’s reign began with, and the dismal events that ushered her out.

The Noble Tryumphaunt Coronacyon of Quene Anne – Wyfe unto the Noble Kynge Henry the VIII, printed by Wynkyn de Worde in 1533

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